A report on the archaeological investigation, exhumation and relocation of graves older than 60 years of age and unkown on the farm Zaaiwater 11 IS, impacted on by the Zaaiwater pit (Tweefontein complex) mining operations, near Ogies (Phola)
Mpumalanga Province


During August 2010 Archaetnos cc was appointed by Xstrata Coal SA (Tweefontein Complex), to conduct an assessment of graves found on the farm Zaaiwater 11 IS (for their Zaaiwater Pit opencast coal mining operations. These graves were not located during earlier Heritage Impact Assessments on the farm (many other graves and grave sites are known in the area and have been earmarked for exhumation and relocation). The graves on Zaaiwater had to be exhumed and relocated as expanding mining operations were threatening. Archaetnos cc was appointed by XStrata, in conjunction with African Grave Relocation Specialists, to assist with the investigation and exhumation of the graves. After all processes were followed a permit was issued to us by SAHRA’s BGG Unit. Descendants were traced by the mine for one of the graves and they gave permission for the actions to be undertaken. The graves were exhumed and relocated to the Phola Municipal Cemetery.

This document constitutes a final report on the results of the fieldwork undertaken and is associated with Permit BG/10/09/004/87. Each individual burial is discussed in Appendix 2 (Burial Forms). A summarized discussion is also given.

We believe that the archaeological investigation, exhumation and relocation of the 8 graves from the area were conducted successfully and that the mining operations here can continue, taking into consideration a number of recommendations put forward at the end of the report.

Report by

A. J.Pelser
Dr. A.C. van Vollenhoven