A report on a basic archaeological assessment for the Empr of the Cambrian Coal Mine close to Dannhauser, Kwazulu-Natal Province


Archaetnos cc was requested by Hydro-Science to conduct a basic archaeological assessment for the EMPR of the proposed Cambrian Coal Mine. This is located to the north-east of the town of Dannhauser in the KwaZulu-Natal Province.

A survey of the available literature was undertaken in order to obtain background information regarding the area. This was followed by the field survey which was conducted according to generally accepted AIA practices, aimed at locating all possible archaeological objects, sites and features of cultural significance in the area of the proposed development.
All sites, objects, features and structures identified were to be documented according to the general minimum standards accepted by the archaeological profession. Co-ordinates of individual localities were determined by means of a Global Positioning System (GPS). The information was added to photographs and the description in order to facilitate the identification of each locality.

During the survey, seventeen sites of cultural heritage significance were located. These are discussed in the report. Most of these are of high cultural significance. Therefore appropriate mitigation measures are proposed. The development may only continue after these have been implemented.

It should be noted that not all sections of an area of this size can possibly be surveyed during the field work for a basic assessment. Access to some of the farms also was challenging, resulting in certain areas not being visited. The report however, also discusses the possibility of sites in areas not surveyed.

It should also be noted that the subterranean presence of archaeological and/or historical sites, features or artifacts is always a distinct possibility. Care should therefore be taken when the development commences further that if any of these are discovered, a qualified archaeologist be called in to investigate.

It should be noted that it is the client’s responsibility to do the submission of this report via the SAHRIS System on the SAHRA website. No work on site may commence before receiving the necessary comments from SAHRA.

Report by

Dr. A.C. van Vollenhoven (L.AKAD.SA.)