Archaetnos cc was requested by SRK Consulting to conduct a cultural heritage impact assessment (HIA) for proposed borrow pits at the Khewezela Colliery. Two borrow pits are proposed, lying south and west of the town of eMalahleni in the Mpumalanga Province.


Project description:

Anglo Operations’ (Pty) Limited (AOL) Khwezela Colliery plans to develop the two borrow pits to provide road building and construction material for its Landau Mineral Residue Deposit (MRD) reclamation project. Each of the proposed borrow pits will be approximately 5 ha in size. The two borrow pits planned are called the Navigation Borrow Pit and the Bokgoni Borrow pit. The Navigation Borrow Pit is located on the farm Klipfontein 322 JS portion 9 and the Bokgoni Borrow Pit on Klipfontein 322 portion 27 and 145.



The methodology for the study includes a survey of literature and a field survey. The latter was conducted according to generally accepted HIA practices and was aimed at locating all possible objects, sites and features of cultural significance in the area of proposed development.


If required, the location/position of any site was determined by means of a Global Positioning System (GPS), while photographs were also taken where needed.  The survey was undertaken by doing a physical survey via off-road vehicle and on foot, and covered as much as possible of the area to be studied. Certain factors, such as accessibility, density of vegetation, etc. may however influence the coverage.


All sites, objects features and structures identified were documented according to the general minimum standards accepted by the archaeological profession. Co-ordinates of individual localities were determined by means of the GPS. The information was added to the description in order to facilitate the identification of each locality.


Public consultation:

Public consultation will be done by the EAP during January 2018.



During the survey no sites of cultural heritage significance were identified within the immediate project area.




  • This report is seen as ample mitigation, since nothing of heritage value were identified in both the surveyed areas.
  • The proposed development may continue.


  • It should be noted that the subterranean presence of archaeological and/or historical sites, features or artifacts is always a distinct possibility. Due to the density of vegetation it also is possible that some sites may only become known later on. Operating controls and monitoring should therefore be aimed at the possible unearthing of such features. Care should therefore be taken when development commences that if any of these are discovered, a qualified archaeologist be called in to investigate the occurrence.


  • In This regards the following ‘Chance find Procedure’ should be followed:


  1. Upon finding any archaeological or historical material all work at the affected area must cease.

2.    The area should be demarcated in order to prevent any further work there until an investigation has been completed.

3.    An archaeologist should be contacted immediately to provide advice on the matter.

  1. Should it be a minor issue, the archaeologist will decide on future action, which could include adapting the HIA or not. Depending on the nature of the find, it may include a site visit.
  1. SAHRA’s APM Unit may also be notified.

6.    If needed the necessary permit will be applied for with SAHRA. This will be done in conjunction with the appointed archaeologist.

7.    The removal of such archaeological material will be done by the archaeologist in lieu of the approval given by SAHRA, including any conditions stipulated by the latter.

8.    Work on site will only continue after removal of the archaeological/ historical material was done.

Report by

Prof. A.C. van Vollenhoven (L.AKAD.SA.) Accredited member of ASAPA Accredited member of SASCH