A final report on the archaeological mitigation open-air stone age scatters impacted on by the the proposed Ikwezi Doornkop Mine development on various farms in the Dannhauser Local Mnicipality, Amajuba District Municipality, Kwazulu Natal


During 2011 Archaetnos cc was requested by Ikwezi Mining to carry out a HIA for the proposed Ikwezi Doornkop Mine Development on various farms in the Dannhauser Local Municipality, Amajuba District Municipality of Kwazulu Natal. During the fieldwork for this assessment, a number of archaeological sites, including surface scatters of Stone Age artifacts, mainly located in erosion dongas in the area, were identified. As some of these sites were to be disturbed by the opencast coal mining operations, it was recommended that Phase 2 Archaeological Mitigation measures be implemented before the work could continue. Phase 2 Archaelogical Mitigation included mapping and the systematic recording and sampling of material from these sites. Other archaeological sites (Iron Age stone walled remains) will not be impacted on by the development and no mitigation was required.

In their Comments on the Heritage Impact Assessment Report (23 March 2011), Amafa agreed with the recommendations made by Archaetnos cc. As a result we were then appointed by Ikwezi Mining to conduct the Phase 2 Mitigation of the sites. After obtaining a permit from Amafa (Permit Reference No. 0012/02), the fieldwork was conducted during May 2012. Prof. Marlize Lombard, a Stone Age specialist, acted as our Principal Investigator and conducted the expert analysis of the material collected during the fieldwork.

During the mitigation an area containing a number of the sites (find spots) were chosen and mapped using a handheld GPS. All the Stone Age material (as well as some random finds of Iron Age pottery) in this area were then marked with pegs, either as individual objects or as denser concentrations, photographed and then representative stone tools were sampled to be analyzed in more detail. One control block of 5m x 5m was then also measured out on a concentration of material and the material sampled. One of the aims was to try and determine artifact density in the area. A total number of 146 Stone Artifacts were sampled and used in the expert analysis.

We believe that the work conducted, and the data retrieved through this work, was sufficient enough to enable us to make the necessary deductions. It is in line with the recommendations made during the HIA and the requirements of the permit issued by Amafa. Therefore it is recommended that the development can continue, taking cognizance of the final conclusions and recommendations at the end of this report. Finally, it is our recommendation that a Destruction Permit for the site area that will be developed be issued so that the development can continue.

Report by

Prof M.Lombard - Dept of Anthropology and Development Studies – University of Johannesburg &
A.J. Pelser - Accredited members of ASAPA